Vulcan was a class M planet in the Vulcan system, the homeworld of the Vulcan species, and a founding member of the United Federation of Planets.
Vulcan, as seen from orbit was largely red in color, with some greens and browns.
Vulcan had a noticeably higher gravity and thinner atmosphere than Earth. It was a mostly arid planet, with many large jutting rock formations, with most of the surface consisting of large deserts or mountain ranges, along with scattered small seas. Desert areas were prone to large amounts of heat, light, and electrical sand fire storms.
There were several tourist attractions on Vulcan, including active volcanoes, ancient ruins, and lava fields.
As early as the mid-20th century the planet Vulcan had contact with the Tellarites and, covertly, with Humans. By the late 21st or early 22nd century they had established contact with the Humans, Cardassians, Klingons, Tholians, and Trill, among others.
In 2152 there were over a million physicians on Vulcan.
During the mid-22nd century, the death penalty was still common practice in Vulcan courts for a small number of offenses, including treason.
Before co-founding the Federation in 2161, Vulcan was in conflict with Andoria. It controlled the Coridan government, and had exchanged ambassadors with Earth and Qo'noS, among others.
For centuries, the planet was governed by a government called the Vulcan High Command. The High Command was dissolved in 2154 when the Kir'Shara was discovered. However, it was later reinstated and remained as the ruling body until 2258.
In 2258, after returning back in time, to gain revenge on Spock of the future prime timeline, the Romulan Nero, also of the future prime timeline, destroyed Vulcan with Red matter, leaving merely 10,000 Vulcans left in the universe, rendering them an endangered species.